Acrocarps with broad leaves

(If you need to know what an Acrocarp is, click here)

1 Leaves  lanceolate or tongue-shaped, at least 4 times as long as broad, nearly parallel-sided — 2

Leaves rounded or ovate, 2-3 times as long as broad, not nearly parallel-sided — 8

2 Longest leaves 7-10 mm. Long, wrinkled transversely — 3

Leaves not above 6 mm. Long, not wrinkled transversely — 4

3 Stem erect, with few or no branches; narrowly cylindrical, slightly curved capsules commonly present in winter (ripening in spring) — Atrichum undulatum (Atrichum tenellum looks similar, but is not in shade and has no small teeth on the underside of its leaves).

Stem erect or straggling, freely branched above, branches often arching; usually barren — Mnium undulatum

4 Leaf margin toothed (teeth fine but clearly visible x 10); very common plant forming wide patches in woods, etc. — Mnium hornum

Leaf margin entire — 5

5 Leaf apex rounded; tufts vivid green when moist, dull and with much curled leaves when dry; calcicole, commonest on limestone walls and in mortar — Encalypta streptocarpa

Leaf apex acute or with shortly excurrent nerve; appearance and habitat various, but not forming tufts on mortar of walls as above — 6

6 Forming short rosettes about 5 mm. tall, on soil of banks; capsule 7-9 rom. long, erect and narrowly cylindrical, on long seta — Tortula subulata

Stems elongated, 3-10 cm. or more, often straggling and semi-prostrate; habitat and capsule not as above — 7

7 Leaf margin thickened to form a narrow border; on rocks or wood in and by rivers and lakes; capsule immersed — Cinclidotus fontinaloides

Leaf margin not bordered; in bogs and marshes; capsule on long seta — Aulacomnium palustre

8 Leaf apex rounded; nerve not excurrent — 9

Leaf apex acute; nerve often excurrent in short point — 10

9 Leaf margin thickened to form obvious border; leaves often nearly round in outline and filmy-translucent — Mnium punctatum

Leaf margin not thickened; leaves narrower and much more opaque; strict calcicole — Encalypta streptocarpa

10 On animal excrement; usually very fertile, plants bearing crowded orange-red setae and erect flask-shaped capsules — Splachnum ampullaceum

Habitat and capsules not as above — 11

11 Erect stems crowned by striking flower-like rosettes of leaves which are 1.5-2.5 cm. Across — Rhodobryum roseum

Wide, flower-like rosettes of leaves not formed — 12

12 Leaf margin toothed — Mnium affine

Leaf margin entire — 13

13 Leaf with well-defined border; usually tall plants (3-10 cm.) of marshes, bogs, etc. — Bryum pseudotriquetrum

Leaf without well-defined border; shorter, stems mostly 1-3 cm. — 14

14 Nerve excurrent in evident, pale greenish, hair-like point; leaves spirally curled when dry; shoots never bud-like; ripe capsule not furrowed — Bryum capillare

Nerve not excurrent as above; leaves lightly twisted when dry; shoots often short and bud-like; ripe capsule furrowed; on recently burnt ground Funaria hygrometrica


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