Pleurocarps with flattened stem

(If you need to know what an pleurocarp is, click here)

1 Tips of branches somewhat curved or curled downwards 2

Tips of branches all flat 4

2 Leaves usually transversely wrinkled (undulate); shoots 4-5 mm. wide at tips Neckera crispa

Leaves not undulate; shoots narrower (up to 3 mm. wide at tips) 3

3 Branches ascending; habit loose and untidy, often with strong superficial resemblance to leafy liverwort Homalia trichomanoides

Branches mostly prostrate; plant forming dense, pale yellowish green patches Neckera complanata

4 Leaves large, translucent, with rounded tips and extremely large cells that are easily seen with lens; shoots 5-8 mm. wide Hookeria lucens

Leaves smaller, less translucent, acute-tipped; cells not seen with acute-tipped; cells not seen with lens; shoots 4-5 mm. Wide or less 5

5 Shoots strikingly pale green, scarcely glossy; leaves transversely undulate Plagiothecium undulatum

Shoots deeper green, moderately to very glossy; leaves not undulate 6

6 Shoots dull olive-green and not very glossy; leaves much shrunken when dry so as to appear rather narrow and widely spaced Plagiothecium sylvaticum (or Leptodictyum riparium, which has nerved leaves)

Shoots bright green and very glossy; leaves little changed when dry so that they still appear crowded 7

7 Plant moderately robust (shoots 2-4 mm. wide) Plagiothecium denticulatum

Plant slender, forming neat patches with many parallel shoots about 1 mm. wide; minute deciduous branchlets often present in axils of some leaves Isopterygium elegans

Neckera crispa

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